IT Jargon Buster

The world is full of jargon. And yes, it’s true (in case you had not realised) it is particularly rife in IT and technology so if you are not IT geeks like us, then it can be a nightmare. That’s why we have pulled together a jargon buster which will hopefully help you along your way. But if not, then reach out to us, as we are always happy to have a chat.

A
Antivirus – Software designed to detect and destroy computer viruses
AI (Artificial Intelligence) – Intelligence demonstrated by machines, primarily devices that perceives their environment and takes actions
AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) – A manufacturer of CPUs, processors, flash memories and other computer hardware
Algorithm – A set of rules to be followed in calculations, especially by a computer
API (Application Programming Interface) – A set of rules that allow the creation of applications, which access the data of an operating system, applications or service
App (Application) A piece of software developed to be installed on mobile devices
Adware – Software that automatically displays or downloads advertising material when a user is online

B
BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) A set of computer rules in firmware, that controls the input and output operations
Byte – A unit of data that contains eight binary bits. Or a series of eights zeros and ones.
Botnet – A network of private computers infected with malicious software, controlled as a group
Backdoor – The access of a computer system with encrypted data that bypasses the systems security system
Bandwidth – The amount of data that is transferred or passed from one destination to another

C
Cache – These are temporary files downloaded for web content. Your computer reloads these files when you revisit a webpage
Cloud – The cloud is where data is stored, controlled from remote servers via an internet connection.
Corrupted – A data file that is no longer usable, usually from infection of a virus
Cybersecurity – A term created to describe all the security put in place to protect computers from cyberattacks
Cyberattacks – A group of hackers who aim to damage or destroy a computer network or system
Cryptocurrency – A digital currency in which encryption skills are used to regularly generate units of currency, to verify the transfer of funds

D
DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) – The intention of harming and stopping a computer network, by flooding it with data sent from many individual computers
Dark Web – A part of the World Wide Web that is only reachable via special software and applications. The dark web allows users to operate whilst remaining untraceable
Downtime – A total outage of power, communication or business
Data Breach – A security incident where sensitive and personal information is copied, transmitted, viewed or stolen
Decryption – The process of taking encoded of encrypted text and translating it into text the user understands
DNS (Domain Name System) – The internet’s system for converting alphabetic names into numeric IP addresses e.g. Submitting a URL and taking the user to the IP address associated with that name
Disaster Recovery – An IT service that provides a full backup of information, data and service so that a business can quickly resume.

E
Encryption – The process of changing information or data into a code, especially to prevent unauthorized access
EXE – A file extension for an executable format. Used to unload software to be installed on a computer
Edge Computing – Allows data to be processed closer to where it is created, rather than transmitting it across long routes to data points or clouds

F
Firewall – A network security system, that controls any incoming or outcoming network traffic
File sharing – A technique used to distribute access to digital media, documents or e-books
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – A client protocol used for transferring files with a host computer. Usually authenticated with usernames and passwords

G
Gigabyte – A unit of data that contains data equal to one thousand million bytes
GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) – A file format that supports animated and static images
GUI (Graphical User Interface) – A user interface that includes graphical elements, like windows, icons and buttons

H
Hacker – A person who uses a computer to gain unauthorized access to data
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) – A universally known system for text tagging files. Meaning you can achieve font, colours, graphics and hyperlinks, to be used on World Wide Web pages
Hotspot (WiFi) – A physical location where people may obtain internet access using WiFi technology. This can be done via a router connected to a WLAN

I
Infrastructure – The IT infrastructure refers to everything; the network, the servers etc.
IT (Information Technology) – Anything related to computing technology
IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) – A 15 or 17 digital code that uniquely identifies mobile phone devices
IP Address – A unique address that identifies a device on the internet or on a local network
ISP (Internet Service provider) – A company that provides customers with Internet access
IOS – An operating system used for mobile devices manufactured by Apple

J
Java – A programming language that produces software for a host of platforms
Javascript – An object-orientated computer programming language used to mainly created interactive effects on web browsers

K
Key Logger – Software which records/logs the keys struck on a keyboard
Kilobyte – A unit of data that contains data equal to one thousand and twenty four bytes

L
LAN (Local Area Network) – A computer network that spans a relatively small area, usually based in a single room or building
Linux – An open-source operating system modelled on UNIX

M
Malware – Software which specifically disrupts or damages a computer, or gains access to a user’s system
Megabyte – A unit of data that contains data equal to one million, forty eight thousand, five hundred and seventy six bytes
Motherboard – A printed circuit board containing the principal components of a computer or other device

N
NOS (Network Operating System) – A computer operating system that is designed primarily to support a personal computer
NTFS (New Technology File System) – A file system that Windows uses for storing and retrieving files on a hard disk

O
Operating System – This is the software that supports a computers basic functions

P
Patched – A patch is a software update comprised code inserted (or patched) into the code of an executable program. Typically, a patch is installed into an existing software program. Patches are often temporary fixes between full releases of a software package.
Phishing – A practice of sending fraudulent emails pretending to be from reputable companies, with the aim to induce individuals to reveal personal information
PDF (Portable Document Format) – A file format for capturing and sending electronic information, so it can be viewed in exactly the intended format
Peer to peer – Networks in which each computer can act as a server for the other, allowing file sharing without a central server
POP (Post Office Protocol) – A type of computer networking that extracts and retrieves email from a remote mail server
Protocol – The official procedure or system of rules for transmitting data between electronic devices, such as computers
Proxy Server – A server that sits between a client application, like a web browser, and a real server

R
Ransomware – A type of malicious software designed to block access to computer system or network, until a sum of money has been paid
RAM (Random Access Memory) – A type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly. This means any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes
Router – A networking device that transfers data packets between computer networks
ROM (Read Only Memory) – A type of storage medium that permanently stores data, meaning it can only be read and not written

S
Server – A computer or computer program that manages access to network resources
Software – A set of instructions or programs instructing a computer to do specific tasks. Software is the universal term to describe computer programs
Spyware – Software that is installed on a computer device with the computer users knowing about it
SEO (Search Engine Optimization) – The practice of increasing the quantity and quality of traffic to a website
Spam – Internet messages that are irrelevant and unsolicited, typically to many users. Usually for the purposes of advertising, phishing or spreading viruses

T
Troubleshoot – The process of analysing and solving a serious problem
Trojan Horse – A computer program designed appear harmless, but is actually malicious and loaded with a computer virus

U
Unpatched – Unpatched software refers to computer code with known security weaknesses, vulnerable to cyber attacks
UX (User Experience) – The concept of encompassing all aspects of the end-user’s interaction with a web site, program or application
UNIX – A multi-user operating system designed for flexibility, UNIX was one of the first operating systems to be written in C language
UAC (User Account Control) – A feature that is in place to stop unauthorized changes to your computer, by telling the user that an action could potentially affect your computers safety
USB (Universal Serial Bus) – A common interface that enables communication between devices and a host controller, such as a computer

V
VPN (Virtual Private Network) – A network that is constructed using public wires, to connect remote users or regional office to a company’s network
Virus – A piece of code which is capable of destroying itself and having a detrimental effect, usually corrupting the system or destroying computer data
Virtual Memory – Computer memory that appears to exist as main storage although it is supported as secondary storage

W
Worm – A standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers
WAN (Wide Area network) – A network that exists over a large scale area. The purpose is to connect different smaller networks, such as LAN and metro area networks.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) – A security protocol that is designed to provide a wireless local area network (WLAN) with a level of security and privacy
Wifi – A wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal
WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network) – A wireless distribution method for two or more devices that use high frequency radio waves to include an access point to the internet

X
XML (Extensible Markup Language) – A metalanguage which allows users to define their own customized markup languages, in order to display documents on the internet

Z
Zip file – A computer file whose contents are compressed for storage or transmission

Wowzers, you made it all the way here… if there is something we have missed and you would like it to be ‘busted’ then contact us on 01844 202763. You will also find out why #ITsDifferentHere

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